Champagne physicist Gérard Liger-Belair’s recent observations revealed in the Journal of Food Engineering

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Gérard Liger-Belair a physics professor at the University of Reims and expert in effervescence and oenology released his latest report entitled:

“Unveiling self-organized two-dimensional (2D) convective cells in champagne glasses”

Fabien Beaumont, Gérard Liger-Belair , Guillaume Polidori –
Laboratoire de Thermomécanique (GRESPI), UFR Sciences 13237697_10209713954748660_6688242121628904899_nExactes et Naturelles, Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, BP 1039, 51687, Reims Cedex 2, France

Journal of Food Engineering

Volume 188, Pages 58–65

‘’’Our work around swirling movements which agitate the champagne in the flute (and their action on the exhaust of flavourings) continues.

In collaboration with our colleagues and friends of the grespi, we just released a new series of observations in the journal of food engineering, which makes the link between the number of vortices on the surface and the intensity of the effervescence in the glass.”

An Abstract of the Report

“Under standard tasting conditions, homogeneous stirring of champagne under the action of rising bubbles confers an advantage compared with a situation where the liquid phase would be at rest. Convection helps renewal of the immediate subsurface layers with champagne from the bulk, thus facilitating the evaporation of volatile organic compounds, and therefore better revealing the champagne “bouquet”. Here, spontaneous and self-organized two-dimensional convective cells were evidenced (at the air/champagne interface) in a laser-etched coupe poured with champagne, through laser tomography. Various regimes were evidenced, from a highly unstable 8-cells regime, to a very stable 4-cells regime. Moreover, by blowing air bubbles through a nozzle positioned at the bottom of a goblet poured with water, and by using Particle Image Velocimetry, similar 2D convective cells were also evidenced at the air/water interface, thus pointing out the crucial role of ascending bubbles behind the formation of self-organized 2D convection cells.”

“Amazing networks of convective cells revealed through laser tomography at the surface of champagne glasses.”

Highlights and Findings:

  • The stirring of champagne glasses under the action of rising bubbles increases the perception of aromas.
  • Self-organized 2D convective cells were observed in champagne glasses through laser tomography.
  • Identical convection cells were evidenced in a model experiment, with a bubbly flow blown in a water goblet.
  • Various regimes were evidenced, from a highly unstable 8-cells regime, to a very stable 4-cells regime.

Confirmed Growth For The Sparkling Wine Market

imagesThe segment is extremely healthy: the global market for sparkling wines proved to be bullish once again in 2015, as confirmed by research by FranceAgriMer. Production, consumption and trade are all showing growth.

Production continues to rise

Production of sparkling wine reached 19 million hectolitres in 2015, equivalent to 2.5 billion bottles, according to data by Agrex Consulting. It accounts for 7% of global wine production, compared with 5% in 2000. 

Leading producer countries

France Germany Italy Spain
4.38 million hl 2.9 million hl 2.9 million hl 1.6 million hl

Consumption is also on the rise

Global consumption totals 17.6 million hl, up 4.1% on 2005/2014. It is growing faster than consumption of still wines which rose 1.3% over the same period.

Leading consumer countries

Germany Russia USA France
2.9 million hl 2.4 million hl 1.9 million hl 1.8 million hl

Per capita consumption

Germany France USA Russia
4.7 bottles/yr 3.7 bottles/yr 0.8 bottles/yr 2.2 bottles/yr

Exports approach 50 billion euros

7.2 million hectolitres of sparkling wines (> 3 bar) were exported in 2015, equating to 7% of global wine exports. Over ten years, export volumes have almost doubled. Sparkling wines posted 48.6 billion euros in turnover with bottle prices averaging at 6.7 euros/litre, three times the price tag for still wines. Three countries dominate exports: Italy, France and Spain. Italy ranks first by volume with growth of 216% between 2005 and 2015. France leads the way by value thanks to its top end offering Champagne with 55% of turnover for French sparkling wines ascribed to this one appellation. Conversely, French sparkling wines lost ground by volume (-9 points) and value (-10 points) in 2005-2015.

Share of the three leading countries of global sparkling wine exports

Italy France Spain
Volume 38% 24% 23%
Value 20% 61% 9%

Great Britain leads the way for imports

The United Kingdom ranks first by volume with an 18% share but is outstripped by the United States in value terms (19% of imports). 59% of British imports by value come from France. The United States have witnessed soaring sparkling wine imports which have surged by 80% in ten years. The average price tag in the States is high at 9.2 euros compared with 5.8 euros in the UK.

Germany is the second largest importer country by volume, followed by the United States. Prices are low in Germany with the market generating only 10% of the value of global imports. Semi-sparkling wines are the most popular which explains why the average price per litre is just 2 euros.

Source: FranceAgriMer

Champagne Bruno Paillard to showcase its Multi Vintage Première Cuvée Rosé at LIWF

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Champagne Bruno Paillard, a Family owned and operated champagne house was founded in 198l. From its inception demonstrated what champagne has best to offer; creating a secret assemblage of diverse crus, grape varieties, and a variety of vintages.

Since 1983, Bruno Paillard was the first Champagne producer to inform the wine consumer of disgorgement dates on it’s labels.

The Bruno Paillard style is the marriage of elegance and complexity, which translates into a light and smooth effervescence, a remarkable purity, a true freshness and a silky texture.

 

Multi Vintage Première Cuvée Rosé

Identity

White wine from Pinot Noir: after a quick pressing, and a fast separation of the skins, the juice is very pale and is vinified.

Red wine from Pinot Noir: is obtained by a prolonged maceration of the juice on the skins.

A touch of Chardonnay brings the necessary vivacity to balance the fruits of Pinot Noir.

The Blend

First pressing of mainly Pinot Noir with some Chardonnay, the amount of which remains a secret.

Reserve wines

a blend of 25 vintages, going back to 1985.

Ageing

three years sur lie, then a further five months after disgorgement.

Dosage

Extra brut, very low dosage, less than 6g/L.

 

Bruno Paillard’s Tasting Notes

The pink copper colour with a hint of raspberry when young, evolves to salmon while ageing. Fine bubbles.

The initial aromas of red currant and red fruits evolve to morello cherry, wild strawberry and violet. A touch of lemon denotes the discrete presence of Chardonnay. With age, aromas tend towards dark fruits like cherry, fig and blackberry.

The palate reveals red fruit captured at their full freshness. The finish is bright and long.

Each bottle carries a label with the month and year of disgorgement.

Pairings

The Multi Vintage Première Cuvée Rosé is a great match with charcuterie, sushi, poultry or red fruit salad, dark chocolate.

‪www.champagnebrunopaillard.com

 

www.londonwinefair.com

[Walker and Wodehouse Stand]

May 3rd – 5th 2016 Kensington Olympia, London

Spring Has Sprung…..Pol Roger Releases Its 2008 Vintage Rosé Champagne

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Pol Roger prefers to release its rosé champagnes only in vintage years.

Maturation:

Produced in limited quantities the Rosé Vintage 2008 has been aged for 6.5 years in cellars before being disgorged and released onto the market.

Grape Varieties:

The Brut Rose Vintage is produced from a blend of 50% Pinot Noir and 35% Chardonnay drawn from some 20 Premier and Grand Crus on the Montagne de Reims and the Côte des Blancs.

In order to obtain its delicate colour and subtle nose 15% Pinot Noir, from selected vineyards in Bouzy, Ambonnay and Cumieres, is vinified “en rouge” and added to the blend prior to the second fermentation.

Dosage – 10.5g/l 

Winemaker’s Tasting Notes:

An intense pink peppercorn colour with a fine stream of persistent bubbles. The nose has aromas of red fruits and summer berries. On the palate the first impression is freshness with notes of fragrant wild strawberry, this develops into creamy ripeness with a hint of vanilla.

  • Allow the wine to blossom in your glass, and you can witness a further layer of citrus aromas with notes of grapefruit.
  • This Rosé Champagne has a great personality.

Food Pairings:

Brut Rosé 2008 an ideal choice to accompany fish such as grilled salmon and sushi. It also marries with fruit tarts and other fruit desserts –  try pairing with a forced Rhubarb fool, the sharpness of the fruit complementing the elegant structure of the wine.

The Official Champagne Grand Tasting Returns to Chicago

IMG_7541The Champagne region’s annual official tasting in the United States was held at the The Ivy Room, Chicago on February 29, 2016. US Trade and media attendees had the opportunity to taste more than 100 champagnes from 35 growers and houses.

The event celebrates Champagne: the sparkling wine produced in the French region of the same name. Only after strict appellation regulations are followed – from harvesting specific plots by hand to minimum time in the caves – can a wine be labeled Champagne. Organized by the Comité Champagne, which represents all the grape growers and houses of Champagne, the tasting gives media, trade and the wine industry a special opportunity to taste and increase their knowledge of a wide variety of wines from the region available on the U.S. market.

“The region is committed to quality, and we are proud to be able to pour over 100 wines from Champagne at this event, providing media and trade a special window into the wines produced by the growers and houses of Champagne.” said Sam Heitner, director of the Champagne Bureau, USA, the official representative of the Comité Champagne in the United States.

Growers and Houses in attendance were:

1. A. Bergère (NM)
2. Alfred Gratien (NM)
3. Ayala (NM)
4. Beaumont des Crayères (CM)
5. Besserat de Bellefon (NM)
6. Billecart-Salmon (NM)
7. Bollinger (NM)
8. Bruno Paillard (NM)
9. Charles de Cazanove (NM)
10. Charles Heidsieck (NM)
11. Charles Mignon (NM)
12. Collet (CM)
13. De Venoge (NM)
14. Delamotte (NM)
15. Devaux (CM)
16. Drappier (NM)
17. Duval-Leroy (NM)
18. Gosset (NM)
19. Henri Giraud (NM)
20. Henriot (NM)
21. J. de Telmont (NM)
22. Joseph Perrier (NM)
23. Laurent-Perrier (NM)
24. Louis de Sacy (NM)
25. Louis Roederer (NM)
26. Mandois (NM)
27. Michel Gonet (RM)
28. Nicolas Feuillatte (CM)
29. Pannier (CM)
30. Paul Goerg (NM)
31. Pierre Legras (NM)
32. Piper-Heidsieck (NM)
33. Ployez-Jacquemart (NM)
34. Pol Roger (NM)
35. Pommery (NM)